译丨当您难受时,7独有效方式吃您远离抱怨。一首译稿。

译丨当您难受时,7独有效方式吃您远离抱怨。一首译稿。

初稿题目:Instead of Complaining: 7 More Productive Things to Do When
You’re Annoyed

真的的进化论全是会

来源:reader’s digest

True Darwinism Is All About Chance

作者:Lisa Cohen

确实的进化论全是机会

译丨丙丁兔

初稿作者:Noah Berlatsky

原稿链接:http://www.rd.com/advice/relationships/stop-complaining/1/

Though the rich sometimes forget, Darwin knew that nature frequently
rolls the dice.

初次翻译,译文仅供上交流,如发生非科学的处,欢迎简信或臧否交流。P.S.雅思口语中有关压力之话题,原文中多经历建议足以当作答案素材。

尽管有钱人有时忘乎所以,达尔文也告知我们,未来诸如掷骰子一样,充满变数。

1.合计积极的一派

图片 1

准,你或又遇堵车了。(内心活动:这还有模仿转家么。。)但更换个思维想:你本出时光错开查转你直接怀念放的播客节目了。再依,大雨让您的星期计划泡了汤?那至少你明天不要浇草坪了喔!

查尔斯•达尔文(图片来源于: Wikimedia Commons)

“想想这些烦心事中再接再厉、幽默之那么一面,”纽约事情人生导师萨曼莎·博库里·约翰逊博士说,“问问你自己如何能将这档子事易得有趣、有益,哪怕是暂时的。”

Chance is an uncomfortable thing. So Curtis Johnson argues inDarwin’s
Dice: The Idea of Chance in the Thought of Charles Darwin, and he makes
a compelling case. The central controversy, and the central innovation,
in Darwin’s work is not the theory of natural selection itself,
according to Johnson, but Darwin’s more basic, and more innovative, turn
to randomness as a way to explain natural phenomena. This application of
randomness was so controversial, Johnson argues, that Darwin tried to
cover it up, replacing words like “accident” and “chance” with terms
like “spontaneous variation” in later editions of his work. Nonetheless,
the terminological shift was cosmetic: Randomness remained, and still
remains, the disturbing center of Darwin’s theories.

  1. Look for the positive

Sure, you might be stuck in traffic. (Will. I. Ever. Move. Again?) But
now you have some extra time to listen to that podcast you’ve been
meaning to check out. Annoyed that rain ruined your weekend plans? At
least you won’t need to water the lawn tomorrow.“Think about what
might be positive or humorous about the situation,”suggests Samantha
Berkule Johnson, PhD, a board-certified life coach in New York
City.“Ask yourself how can you make it fun or beneficial, at least for
the time being.”

机会为人不安,柯蒂斯·约翰逊以《达尔文的骰子:进化论中的机遇思想》一写中如是说。并且,他于是令人信服的凭据加以证实。约翰逊认为,达尔文的成功中之主要争论和更新并非自然选择学说,而是利用随机性来说明自然现象,这同样说明更基础,也重新颖。约翰逊还说,人们便进化论中的随机性争论不休,甚至并达尔文自己尚且打算用有些如“偶然”,“机会”,以及新兴底“自发性变异”等词来覆盖这无异于看法。尽管如此,术语的变型还无法覆盖真相:进化论中被丁不安的随机性观点仍存,并拿继续有。

2.冥想

Johnson, a political theorist at Lewis & Clark College, explains that
there are two basic kinds of chance in Darwin’s thought. The first—most
familiar and least disconcerting—is chance as probability. According to
the theory of natural selection, individuals with advantageous
adaptations are most likely to survive. A giraffe with a longer neck has
a better shot of reaching those lofty leaves and living to munch another
day; a polar bear blessed with a warmer coat has a higher probability of
surviving a frigid winter than one with less hair. The long-necked
giraffe may not always win—it may, for example, be pulverized by a
meteor before it can pass on its long-necked genes. But over time, the
odds will go its way. There is randomness here, but it is controlled and
predictable: It works in accordance with a rule. Natural selection makes
sense.

约翰逊博士说:“每天就5-10分钟之静坐、深呼吸、清空大脑,都得拉你减轻焦虑和压力。”

政治理论家约翰逊就职于路易克拉克大学,他说道,在达尔文的沉思中,存在个别种为主会。第一种植机遇是可能,对这我们死了解,也能够承受。根据本选择学说,更能适应环境的个人更可能在下去。脖子又增长之长颈鹿能够得着更强的树叶,因此又能够多得到同龙之食;毛皮更厚更保暖的北极熊于由毛皮较少的同类,更发生或挨过寒冷的冬季。脖子长之长颈鹿为未肯定总能够生下来,比如,它可能当管长脖子基因传给下一代之前为流星砸个破。但随着时间推移,几统领会随地增加。这之中在随机性,但也唯独控可预测:其中有同样效规则。因此,自然选择学说成立。

一律客上在《人格和社会心理学》期刊上的钻发现,每日冥想试的参加者能够逐渐体会及还多之积极情绪。放下你的无绳电话机,从另外可以为你抱怨之事情被加大一个小假,这会赞助你重新开情绪,甚至发生新的、积极的想法。

The second kind of chance in Darwin’s work, though, is more mysterious.
For natural selection to work, you need to have a range of traits to
select among. That range is provided by individual variation, the fact
that two different animals (whether giraffe or bear) are different from
each other. Some giraffes have longer necks than others. Some bears have
thicker fur than others. Why should this be? Darwin’s answer was chance.

  1. meditate

“Even five to 10 minutes each day of quiet sitting, deep breathing,
and clearing your mind can help alleviate anxiety and stress,”says Dr.
Johnson. A study in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
found that participants who meditated daily experienced more positive
emotions over time. Ditch your phone and take a tiny vacation from
anything complaint-worthy. It will help you reboot and may even lead
to a new, positive outlook.

只是,在达尔文的奉献着,第二栽时则更加隐秘。在当然选择被,你要有不少不比特点以供应选择。这些特征基于个人形成,也就是说两单例外之动物个体彼此不同(不管是长颈鹿还是北极熊)。一些长颈鹿的颈部又增长,一些北极熊的皮毛更侧重。为什么会如此?达尔文的答案是机。

3.体贴不爽情绪的原因

Sometimes, Johnson writes, Darwin would argue that “chance” stood in for
unknown laws—consistent rules which were not yet known, but which, when
discovered, would explain exactly why individuals, both within and
across species, were different. But “in his more private and less
guarded moments,” Johnson explains, Darwin suggested that “the cause of
at least some variations is unknowable, even in principle.” And, in
fact, as Johnson suggests, this second interpretation—that the cause of
variation is unknowable—has only become more persuasive over time. “The
mechanisms of variation are better understood than ever,” Johnson
writes, “but the ability to predict what variations will occur and what
will not is not much better off than when Darwin wrote.” As biologist
and feminist theorist Julia Serano argues in her recent bookExcluded, we
can’t currently predict whether someone will be homosexual or
heterosexual, cis or trans, based on their genetic code, and there’s no
reason to think we ever will be able to do so.

“含糊而而不行泛泛的埋怨,通常与有尚无辙化解的题目有关,”心理治疗师、心理学博士丽萨·M·朱利亚诺在psychologyToday网站上划拉。假如你抱怨女人一样团乱,可能而真正烦恼的题材是男女辈动手乱了房也休查办。抱怨你的业主是只混蛋?你死有或是以苦恼议会开始得最为久导致误了列车。准确找到有不适情绪的真缘由,这是找到解决之道的第一步。

约翰逊写道,有时达尔文会说,“机遇”选择的原理并无明白,我们本不明这些规律,但一旦我们发现规律,就能够得知为什么无论种内还是种植内部,个体都是差距。但约翰逊说道,达尔文于“更私人同重新轻易时候”提到过“即使以大约上看,至少还有局部变化多端是不可知的”。而实质上,正如约翰逊所摆,第二栽解释——变异的由是不可知的——随着时间推移,更加给丁认。约翰逊写道:“如今对形成机制的询问过以往,但预计何种变异会发生,何种不会见,比由达尔文时,也好不交哪里去”。作为生物学家与女性主义者,茱莉亚·塞拉诺在它们底新书《排除:让女性主义和酷儿运动更富有包容性》中称,目前,根据基因密码组,我们尚非克预测人们的性取向,不管是反式构象还是顺式构象,而且,也尚无任何迹象说明我们前能够形成。

3.Hone in on why you feel prickly

“Vague, general complaints usually refer to problems that have no
solution,” psychotherapist Lisa M. Juliano, PsyD, writes
onPsychologyToday.com.
If you’re complaining that your house is a mess, maybe the real issue
is that yourkids aren’t cleaning up after
themselves. Whining that your
boss is a jerk? You might be frustrated that late meetings are causing
you to miss your train. Pinpointing the cause is the first step to
seeking a solution.

Thinkers in Darwin’s day had largely made their peace with Newton, and
were therefore able to see God’s hand behind the operation of natural
laws. But for Darwin, variation did not conform to laws. Instead, God
appeared to be playing dice with creation—and as Einstein would later
suggest, a dice-playing God begins to look like not a God at all. For
Darwin, in particular, the fact that variations were as likely to be
negative as positive created serious problems for his faith. As Johnson
writes:

4.出目标的发泄

达尔文时的思维下多与牛顿和,因此,也都能望自然法则背后的上帝的手。但对达尔文来说,变异并无按自然规律。事实上,万物似乎是上帝掷骰子创造的——爱因斯坦新兴吗关乎过,掷骰子的上帝开始变得不像上帝。变异对物种的裨益与坏处一样肯定,这无异于事实对达尔文而言,尤其挑战了外的信。约翰逊用写道:

设您能当泛情绪的又,通过脑风暴找到解决问题的方式,从而改善不良情绪带来的麻烦,那这种发自更拥有医疗作用。《社会心理学》期刊上发表之如出一辙桩研究检察了大学生对事关处理方面的苦闷,并测试了她们的专注力和幸福度。结果发现,抱怨时脑中产生明晰目标及缓解办法的参与者,比那些单纯为了发泄情绪而民怨沸腾之参与者,幸福指数再次胜。

Some creatures are born so ill-adapted that they do not really have any
chance at all to survive or at least to propagate. That did not seem to
Darwin to reflect intelligence…. How could a good God plan a world
destined to be filled with so much senseless death and evidence misery?

4.Vent with a purpose

Expressing your frustrations is more therapeutic if you also
brainstorm ways to improve the situation.A study in the Journal of
Social Psychology surveyed college students about their relationship
pet peeves, and also measured mindfulness and
happiness.Participants who
complained with a specific goal or solution in mind were happier than
those who just complained for the sake of venting.

有些浮游生物生来就非适应环境,它们向不太可能生存,或者至少不能够繁衍后代。这对达尔文而言,并无能够体现上帝的智慧……全善的上帝怎么可能创造有一个已然充满无谓死亡与各方苦难的社会风气?

5.写下来

Attributing variation to chance leads inevitably to a particularly
sticky version of the theodicy problem. If God is all powerful, how can
he roll the dice with each infant, doling out disadvantages and, at
worst, crippling, painful, terminal birth defects? Darwin had no answer,
which is why he appears to have lost his faith in God, and why he hid
his commitment to chance from his theistic colleagues and the public.
Eventually, Johnson suggests, Darwin quietly adopted a full-blown
materialist determinism, in which natural forces governed all aspects of
life. Since unknown laws of chance were responsible for individual
character and appetites, Darwin thought, there was no space left for
free will.

“记日记吧。当您拿题目写于张上时常,问题会显得微不足道。”上述烦恼研究之率先作者罗宾·科瓦尔斯基以woman’s
day杂志上说。一旦你将所有的题目写下来摆在你前面时,你可能会发现而所抱怨的事务并没您想像的那么坏。

将形成归因于时将不可避免地挑战神正论,让问题易得非常难。如果上帝是全善全能的,那他还要是何许将婴儿当作骰子掷,决定每个新生儿的气数,随意与他们各种短,残疾,致命之天赋弱点也?达尔文没有答案,这给达尔文转而信任会,也吃他为外的神学同事以及群众隐瞒了外对此会理论的坚持不懈。约翰逊以结尾处提到,达尔文悄然受了提高成熟之质决定论。在物质决定论中,自然力量掌控了身的浑。由于个体特征以及癖好是由于未知的机遇法则控制的,那么,达尔文想,留给自由意志的空间就寥寥无几了。

5.Write it down

“Keep a journal. When you put problems down on paper, they can seem
smaller,” Robin Kowalski, PhD, the lead author of the pet peeves
study, toldWoman’s
Day
.
Once you have all the evidence written in front of you, you may find
the issue you were complaining about isn’t as bad as you thought.

Johnson does not take the story of Darwin and chance beyond the
naturalist’s own lifetime. It seems clear, though, that even our more
secular age is uncomfortable with this aspect of Darwin’s thought.
Natural selection became popularized through Social Darwinism and
eugenics, and still resonates in discussions around meritocracy. The
argument that those who succeed are the most fit to succeed has a
reassuring teleology; CEOs, venture capitalists, politicians, or, for
that matter, freelance writers, can look to Darwin to assure themselves
they have succeeded not by chance, but by skill and/or virtue.

6.采取行动

约翰逊并非全赞成达尔文的驳斥,尤其是对准连这员博物学家自己生平都无缓解之题目有着保存。很明朗,就连咱们世俗化的时都指向达尔文这同样思想感到不安。通过社会达尔文主义和优生学,自然选择学说流行了四起,并随以人才阶层的反驳中常出现。成功人士的中标是盖有成功之能力,采取这无异观点的目的是为吃某些人安然自得;执行总裁,投机资本家,政客,或者,就此事而言之随机作家,他们还梦想达尔文,依靠他的理论被投机确信他们的成功绝不运气,而是技能或美德,或技术美德兼具。

“制定一个计划,把解决方案说明成小之手续,然后开始逐步实行。”约翰逊博士建议。例如,与该抱怨目前从未有过好之约会对象,不如想同一相思有所可能结识新对象的不二法门,然后制定出一个实施计划。列出所有的约会网站,分析这些网站的优缺点。重新打有肖像作为头像照片备用,然后择中一个网站开创造而的个人资料,并联系网站上之1顶2只人口当做被协调之挑战。与那抱怨,不如掌握主动权,尝试改变那些让而灰心丧气的业务。

Similarly, pop evolutionary psychology retails stories in the same vein,
about how men are from Mars and women are from the savannah. They
explain social interactions in terms of an all-purpose predictive
rubric, one which rationalizes everything—from attitudes toward short
skirts to the Oscars—in terms of mating probabilities. Darwin himself
recognized that not all variations were necessarily beneficial—that some
traits or behaviors might have no grand effect on survival, or might
even be harmful but not harmful enough to be selected against. But in
pop culture, the shadow of meaninglessness is dispersed, and, in some
way, Darwin’s theories are used to make what could otherwise be seen as
random seem predictable and meaningful.

6.Take action

“Make a plan, and start taking small steps toward a solution,”
recommends Dr. Johnson. For example, instead of complaining that there
are no good dating prospects, think of all the ways you can meet new
people, and come up with a plan for how you’ll do it. Make a list of
dating sites and their pros and cons. Snap new photos for your profile
picture. Then choose a site and start answering the questions about
yourself to create your profile. Challenge yourself to contact one or
two people. Instead of complaining, be proactive and try to change the
thing that’s frustrating you.

腾飞心理学大行其道,其和进化论一脉相承,也当一如既往贩售什么男人来自火星女人来非常草原之故事。他们指定用啦还能够教上之大红字,以及交配概率来分解社会气象,合理化所有事务——从对短裙的情态及奥斯卡奖。达尔文本人意识及,并非所有变异都有益,一些特征还是作为对保障在效果有限,或就非至淘汰,但为不利于生存。但以盛文化下,人生无意义的恶性肿瘤危害十分大,甚至当某种程度上,有人以达尔文的说理,让那些本就是可视作随机的风波看上去是可以预计的而拥有意义。

7.认识及有些工作在您掌控之外

Johnson’s book challenges us, at least implicitly, to rethink these
comforting Darwinisms. In particular, acknowledging chance seems like it
could be a way to think about the arbitrariness of success and power.
Meritocracy is false for a lot of reasons, but Johnson’s Darwin points
to a very basic flaw—namely, that individuals are not responsible for
their own merits, whatever those merits may be. Whatever skills or
talents or character traits you have, whatever self you were born with,
is the product of random variation. Darwin can be used to tell the rich
that they amassed their wealth by being the fittest, perhaps, but he can
also be used to point out to the rich that they really could just as
easily have been someone else. The person you’re stepping on—it’s only
the roll of a dice that that person isn’t you.

“如果您出道做点什么来扳回一个讨厌的层面,那即便失去开。如果什么也召开不了,就不用抱怨,顺其自然好了,”shape网站建议道。

约翰逊的修挑战了咱本着达尔文主义的认识,或者至少暗示我们去再思考那些为丁且以慰藉之进化论。重新思考达尔文主义,承认机遇之留存如可以叫我们认识及,其实成功与权杖是擅自自由的。精英体制是错的,原因大多,但根据达尔文的说理,约翰逊指出了材料体制的从错误——个体不能够控制自己优点,不管这优点是呀。不管而持有什么技术什么才艺什么特色,不管您生来如何,都是任意变异的结果。达尔文的争辩好据此来教育有钱人,他们的财可能是盖其会适应环境而得来之,但达尔文理论却一样警告来钱人,他们吗最生或成为穷人。你踏上在足的食指用未是公,也不过是掷骰子的造化好罢了。

7.Recognize what’s out of your control

“If there’s something you can do to fix a situation that’s upsetting
you, do it. If it’s beyond your power to change something, don’t
complain about it, just let it go,”
advisesShape.com.

Beyond that, chance opens materialism to something, or somewhere, else.
Darwin rejected miracles adamantly, but surely if the creation of each
individual is radically unpredictable, then each individual is (as Alan
Moore and Dave Gibbons argue inWatchmen) a miracle in him-, her-, or
zir-self. Natural selection is often used to argue that the individual
is defined by the struggle for survival. But random variation seems to
suggest instead that people (and not just people) are too random to be
predicted or defined. We can’t predict why, or how, a new baby will vary
from everyone before or since. Life after Darwin is still, and in some
ways more than ever, a mystery. For Darwin, chance meant determinism,
but it seems like it could just as easily mean possibility.

除了,机遇之见识呢用唯物主义引往了另外东西,或任何世界。达尔文对神迹嗤之为鼻子,但若是每个个体的创始都统统不行预测,那么每个个体自身必然是神迹(正使阿兰·摩尔同大卫·吉布斯当《守望者》一开中所说)。自然选择学说通常用于说明个体必须努力生存下去,但机会也犹如暗示着人类(以及另生物)过于任性,以至于根本无法预测或者概念。我们没法预计未来底同等叫婴儿以何种方法跟古往今来的任何人都不比,也未知晓到底为什么。达尔文之后,生命还是是只谜,甚至于某种角度说,变得愈加隐秘。对达尔文而言,机遇意味着决定论,但骨子里会同或代表可能性。

原稿来源:Pacific Standard

转帖地址:http://blog.sina.com.cn/sxumti

是因为译者水平有限,拙文和译文不当之处,还请批评改正。

感秀峰和磊磊同学校对!译文修改直到快十二点才到位,辛苦了!再次谢谢秀峰和磊磊同学!

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